This study looked at the use of continuous antibiotic treatment to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants with severe vesicoureteral reflux (a condition where urine flows back from the bladder to the kidneys). The study involved infants aged 1 to 5 months who had not had a UTI before.
The results showed that those who received continuous antibiotics had a lower risk of getting their first UTI compared to those who didn’t receive treatment. However, the benefit was relatively small, and it meant that 7 children needed to be treated for 2 years to prevent one UTI. Most of the untreated infants didn’t get a UTI during the study.
The study also found that antibiotic-resistant bacteria were more common in UTIs from the treated group. However, serious side effects were similar in both groups.
In summary, for these infants with severe vesicoureteral reflux and no previous UTIs, continuous antibiotic treatment reduced the risk of a first UTI but came with a risk of antibiotic resistance.