The Old Boys’ Club: Schmoozing and the Gender Gap
This study looked at how employees interact with their managers in the workplace. It found that when employees have more face-to-face conversations with their managers, they tend to get promoted more often. This finding might help explain why there’s a gender pay gap, as this interaction seems to benefit employees’ careers. The study used data from a big financial company and observed changes in promotions when managers were rotated. Through various rigorous tests and examinations, the researchers determined that the way men interact socially with other men in the workplace could account for up to 40 percent of the difference in promotions between genders at the company they studied.
Cullen, Zoë, and Ricardo Perez-Truglia. 2023. “The Old Boys’ Club: Schmoozing and the Gender Gap.” American Economic Review, 113 (7): 1703-40.